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Photo of Jessie M. Johnston missionary in Amoy Xiamen nineteenth centuryJin Ko-Niu (PART TWO) -- A BRIEF SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF JESSIE M. JOHNSTON FOR EIGHTEEN YEARS W.M.A. MISSIONARY IN AMOY, CHINA
BY HER SISTERS META AND LENA WITH A PREFACE BY HER MOTHER
PUBLISHED BY T. FRENCH DOWNIE 21 WARWICK LANE, LONDON, E.G. 1907
Scanned by Dr. Bill
Note: This book has dozens of great 19th century photos of Gulangyu, Amoy and vicinity; I hope I'll have time to scan and upload soon. I will also, when I have time, upload other old China books from my library.
Click Here to Download PDF file of "Jin Ko-Niu"
Click Here for "Xiamen--Birthplace of Chinese Protestantism (Amoy Missions, History)
Jessie Johnston at her desk Gulangyu Amoy XiamenClick Here for more info on Gulangyu Islet

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Click Here for Part One: The Call to China
65 Pupils Who Became Teachers (Photo)
First Furlough (1893-1894) Furlough in 1900 Last Years (1901-1907)
Download PDF File for Extracts from Letters & Stories

 

IN CHINA L. E. J. 1885—1904

I KNOW that far across the sea
There dwelleth one
Whose thoughts are sure to turn to me
When work in dune.
Ah, yes! and still, when other cares
Engross the mind,
The heart is still as closely knit,
The thought as kind.
Think'st thou I grieve because these cares
Thus intervene?
Nay! Love is often deepest felt
With such between.
And will our Heavenly Father's heart
Less tender prove
When earthly ties and cares engage
His children's love?
Oh no! His thoughts to usward turn
More kindly far. And when we love and work most we
Most like Him are.
Still let us strive to live with Him,
His face before, And loving others, still contrive
To love Him more.
So, working, praying heartily.
We like Him grow. And loving Him and those around.
His love shall know
J M J. AMOY. 1885.
(Written to her sister.)
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BEGINNINGS
JESSIE sailed for China in October, 1885, just after her twenty-fourth birthday. She describes her arrival in Amoy on December 11th:
"It was rather a dull morning when we reached Amoy, but the sandy beach and houses of Kolong-su looked home-like, and before long Mr. McGregor* and Miss Maclagan were on board, and brought us ashore for breakfast. Miss M. and I. arc to take possession of the Ladies' House, which has just been cleaned and painted. It has a very pretty situation, with lovely glimpses of the sea and hills beyond, and little winding paths lead up to the great grey boulders above us.
"You may be sure that one of our first visits here was to the school, which compared favourably with those we visited elsewhere, and the hearty greeting we received from the children was most encouraging. I quite longed that some of those who are
* Now Dr. McGregor.

34 JIN KO-NIU
carrying on this work at home could have stood with us in the bright, airy schoolroom, and have heard the 'Peng-an' (Peace) which echoed from every corner. On our first visit was to the school Saturday morning, directly after breakfast, a messenger was sent to say that the whole school was coming to pay me a visit, and 1 had barely time to come downstairs before
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BEGINNINGS 35
the tramp of feet was heard, and two by two the twenty-three girls, their matron, and teacher, died up the approach to our house. I waited in the drawing-room to receive them as they crowded in, and felt very helpless as I smiled a reply to all their good wishes. A little quietness followed while Miss M. kindly interpreted some of their words, and told them how I hoped soon to understand and speak to them in their own language. 1 was at a loss as to how such guests should be entertained, but they solved the problem themselves by beginning a tour of the room and examining each object minutely. Fortunately our furniture is but scant, as this proved a lengthy proceeding, and somewhat monotonous. However, our guests were well pleased, and proposed to visit our bedrooms; and on Miss M. consenting, the whole party trooped upstairs, and I soon heard great chattering and laughing over my boots and slippers. It seems they had been promised to see over the house alter I came. A photograph of my father interested them very much, as they had heard of him before. It is pleasant to find that he is still remembered out here by several, my teacher amongst others.
"The girls were very curious to know whether I sang or not, and what my name would be. The latter question puzzled me,

36 JIN KO-NIU
but I have since heard that it is to be 'Jin,' the nearest approach in Chinese to Johnston, and meaning 'love.1 As Miss M.'s name is 'An' (Peace), the Ladies' House at Amoy ought to be a pleasant place to live in!"
To Jessie the study of the Chinese language was a real pleasure, and she managed very early to understand and make herself understood in the Amoy colloquial. Any phrase heard she quickly made a note of, and used on the earliest opportunity. She used to love to run down to have a chat or game with the schoolgirls, and proverbs or quaint expressions caught from them were quickly added to her own vocabulary. The study of the written character she found very interesting, and an entry in her diary after four months showed that she began then to read her verse in turn at morning prayers, giving first the character sound and then the translation into colloquial.
Later, when school - teaching and other work made daily study impossible, she enjoyed using the leisure of the summer holidays for reading with some, competent teacher.
Jessie was never one who, from having a knowledge of character, decried the use of the Romanised writing. On the contrary, she took a pride in the fact that the early

BEGINNINGS 37
Amoy missionaries were noted amongst the pioneers of Romanization, and lost no opportunity of explaining the immense advantages that How from its use. To quote her own words: "For producing capable, intelligent Christians give me the Romanized colloquial."
A friend, visiting Amoy about two years after Jessie's arrival, writes:" She seems to me to have made most excellent progress with the language, and to know it very well for such a short residence here, and she seems to have learnt it most carefully and accurately."
In the following letter, written after being out just a year, she tells her mother how she prepares for a class in colloquial:
“It takes a long, weary time to prepare. For instance, one lesson which takes about half an hour to hear requires often more than one afternoon's preparation. The pupils arc revising, and so learn five or six chapters of a book about the Judges and Kings. Well, I have to read these over, not only so as to understand the sense, but to know each word's meaning, and when to use it. In one page there may be twenty or thirty new words—e.g., all Goliath's armour; or, again, I may pass a page with only one or two words to look up.
"After the gist of the thing is in my head, I begin to write out about fifty questions or

PHOTO: KOLONQ-SU, AMOY

so. These have to be carefully prepared, and put into proper idiom. Of course it gets easier each time. Still, there are so many new words, and it is so easy to make mistakes in idiom, or only to make half sense out of it, that I think the wisest course is to plod on, doing everything as thoroughly as possible."
Jessie's early days in Amoy were greatly brightened by the friends she found. She often wrote, "They spoil me out here," and "They are all so good to me." In her own mission—the English Presbyterian—there were married missionaries, and in their houses she received a warm welcome, and a romp with their children was always a treat to one who had come from a big houseful of brothers and sisters. Dr. and Mrs. Talmage, of the A.R.M., admitted her early to a daughter's place in their home, and happy indeed were the times she spent there. Their advice and encouragement, and, still more, the strength and beauty of their lives, were a great inspiration to this very young missionary.
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It is not necessary to mention each, because the whole missionary community were soon her friends, for she had an undoubted gift for friendship ; but mention must be made of the seven "Ko-niu."
"Ko-niu" is the Amoy word for "unmarried lady," and there were just the perfect number of these at this time on the island. Two belonged to the London Mission, and had come out only a few weeks before Jessie; her colleague, Miss Maclagan, has already been mentioned ; the two daughters of Dr. and Mrs. Talmage had been several years at work, and understood both the language and the people; and the young

40 JIN KO-NIU
daughter of another missionary, with Jessie, completed the group. These seven saw a good deal of each other. A friend writes from Amoy about this time: "Jessie is as merry as ever, and it does one's heart good to hear her merry laugh. She has lost none of the cheery ring in it through all her hard study and all the difficulties of a life out here."
An early institution in connexion with the missionary lift: in Amoy is what is known as *' Ko-niu le-pai," or the single ladies' prayer-meeting. By six o'clock on Saturday evenings, all through the year, the unmarried ladies, if wanted, must be looked for at this gathering, for it is counted one of the most binding of engagements, although the most informal of meetings. The attendances vary from two or three in the winter months, when inland visiting is in full swing, to twenty or more in recent summers, when the ladies of all three missions are down from the six inland stations for the hot weather. Each takes her turn in leading. A passage of Scripture is chosen, and read around verse by verse in turn, a hymn sung, and then each one tells of any case of special need which she has met with during the week. Then all kneel in prayer, and the petitions go up in a ceaseless stream, as each begins as her neighbour ends, until the circle

65 pupils in Amoy school who all became teachersBEGINNINGS 41
is completed. There is a wonderful feeling of all being "with one mind, in one place." Many a young missionary has had ready sympathy and advice from the more experienced ones of the group as she has told of her puzzling cases.
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PHOTO: UP-COUNTRY TRIP
IN those early days, when traveling was a more difficult matter than it is now, these ladies seldom went to visit the inland places alone, but generally with one of another mission, to save the giving up of classes in the centre station. One good result of this was that, traveling with a member of another mission, the churches of both were visited, and a great feeling of unity, arising from knowledge of and interest in each other's fields, was the result. Most of Jessie's journeys were with Miss M. Talmage, her lifelong friend. The following extract from a letter written just four months after arrival gives some idea of the method adopted for a short week-end trip:
"These trips up-country are delightful, and this is the very season for going. I have been to several places. Each time Miss M. goes off on Sunday morning to the next station, and leaves me with the

UP-COUNTRY TRIPS 43

women, so that I can hear texts, talk, and teach to my heart's content, and each lime I find it so much easier both to talk and to understand. On Saturday I got a note to say I must be on the boat by eleven ; therefore I sallied forth, attended to the veranda steps by G. with the cake-box. I went down the broad stone steps, stopping to smell the roses and gather a spray of white blossom as I passed, before me our coolie, with my bedding on a pole over his shoulder, and our boy 'Gift,' with my shawl and books, marched in procession. The coolie is a fine, tall man, with the most dignified bearing- quite a credit to our establishment. 'Gift' is about sixteen, and very tall for his age, with moderate good looks, very willing, but so noisy! I was taking him with us, as we needed a boy to cook and look after the luggage, and serve as a sort of escort. At the end of the long narrow stone jetty the coolie deposited his burden in a little ‘sampan’ (rowing-boat) and returned, while we rowed out to the American Gospel boat. I arrived first, and sat on the roof of the cabin, which is slightly raised above the deck to allow of windows, and soon after Miss M. came. We then settled our baggage in the cabin, and ourselves perched on the wooden boards, which serve as beds.
"About two o'clock we reached the land-

44 JIN KO-NIU
ing-place, but could not land till nearly five, as the sun was too hot for our twenty minutes' walk across country. When we were able to land in the little boat sent out for us, we found quite a crowd on shore watching us pick our way over the rocks and sand. We exchanged greetings, and

PHOTO: RED-TILED COTTAGES AMONGST THE BANYANS
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getting a porter for our luggage, began our walk through the village and over the fields to our destination—a row of red-tiled cottages, nestling among the banyans, in the distance, at the foot of a cluster of rugged hills.
"After supper we went down to prayers in the chapel. The women sit by them-

UP-COUNTRY TRIPS 45
selves even then, and the helper's wife had her two little girls, about as sleepy as I was —such bright, bonny little damsels. We went early to bed, and notwithstanding the mosquito netting, the creatures were dreadful.
"Sunday was a lovely day, and I almost envied Miss M. her long chair-ride to Te-soa. However, 1 went back to our quarters, from whence 1 could see the helper's wife and bairns, beautifully dressed, going over the lesson for the day. I soon joined her and the other women, who, with their babies tied to their backs, were assembling to the number of eighteen or twenty. I noticed a few hooks, on which the women hung their skirts on entering. They were nearly all withered dames, wrinkled and yellow ; but one or two young women also appeared, and after coming up to greet the ko-niu, settled themselves on one of the red benches which ran round the room, and had a chat together before service-time.
"The preacher soon came in, and we sang a hymn. The singing was much better than at Kang-thau. There a chorus of cats would he harmony compared to it. Tho old women sat swaying to and fro and holding up their books. At the end of each line they would hurry to read through the next, and directly it was read would begin their drone again, regardless of their neighbours, time, tune,

46 JIN KO-NIU
or anything. After singing, some one was called on to pray, and then the chapter for the day was read and explained, and different people were called oil to say their verses.
"There was an interval of about ten minutes between this early worship and the regular service, which is conducted in the same way as at home. The women behaved wonderfully well. Of course the minister had to pause once or twice, to ask them not to talk, and to speak to some children who were laughing and running up and down.
"After church I heard the women repeat texts, and then retreated upstairs; but a poor old body followed me with a handkerchief of what I feared was some dreadful cake, but it turned out to be pea-nuts. She would crack them, blow off the husk, and pop them into my hands, till my appetite for dinner disappeared. A number of others soon followed her, and I determined to improve the occasion, so brought out a picture of Christ coming to the disciples on the lake, which greatly interested them. I read them the account in the Bible and gave them a little 'doctrine,' which I had prepared with my teacher. They understood, and repealed it to new-comers, so I felt quite encouraged. They left me when I began lunch, so I had a little leisure.
"As I was finishing I heard some whisper-

UP-COUNTRY TRIPS 47
ing, and saw some women at the bottom of the stair, who told me they were waiting for afternoon meeting, so I had to hurry down. They soon gathered round, and I found to my dismay that they expected me to take it. However, I asked the helper's wife, and she did it very nicely. Afterwards the Bible-woman improved the time before service by speaking some more 'doctrine.' The women were dreadfully sleepy, and so was 1. 1 could hardly keep my eyes open, it was so hot and close. One old woman at the back amused me by coming forward and shaking the others, pulling their sleeves, and directing their attention to the speaker, who was going on regardless of listeners on our side of the screen. One woman before me was not even then sufficiently awake, so the undaunted arouser seized her by the eyelids and pulled them open, pushing her along the form at the same time! I feared a like fate, and by a severe effort kept awake during service, after which the people separated.
"One of the men came and spoke across the screen, asking me to go along with the Bible-woman, as it might draw some to hear her, so I ran up for my hat and umbrella, and, supported by three old women, had a lovely walk through the fields to a little village on the shore, where a crowd speedily collected to admire me! and listened very
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48 JIN KO-NIU
attentively while the Bible-woman spoke. I invited them to attend the chapel, and some of the women promised. I only hope they will come.
“Afterwards I was conducted to a very dirty yard, where a heathen woman brought basins of greasy, sugarless, and milkless tea and some little papers of cakes, I lasted, and then put it down, as is considered polite ; but she said, 'She is afraid; she will not take our food,' so I courageously drained the cup, and took nibbles of the cake, carrying away the remainder, which I gave to a child on the way. Leaving amid many kind invitations to come again, I ran on in front of my guides, but was slopped by hearing them call, and, seeing that another woman was with them, I returned, and found the new-comer very anxious to see me. The Bible-woman tried to speak to her, but she would listen lo no one but me, so I produced one of Mrs. Grimke’s cards (I wish I had more of them) in the Amoy dialect, and read it to her, and urged her to go to church. She asked me if 1 would be there, so I told her to come, and that the preacher's wife would tell me if she had been. When she left I was tired of the slow pace of my guides, who, with long poles to aid their tiny feet, were hobbling along and laughing at my impatience ; so I told them I would

UP-COUNTRY TRIPS 49
go quicker, and had a regular race home, to work off some of my superfluous energy. I had time to wash my hands before Miss M. appeared, and then we talked and read with the women till 7.30, after which came evening prayers and then to bed, as we had to be up by five o'clock, to catch the tide."
At other times long tours would be taken, lasting a month or more, stopping at various chapels at night, and staying one or more days in each, as seemed best, visiting the women connected with the little congregations, and seeking out their daughters, and, if of suitable age, inviting them to come to school. The women said she "had an attractive way," and certainly many little maidens, at first reluctant to face the ordeal of a journey by land, and, worse still, by water, and the strange new thing—a girls' school—were persuaded, and came to find it the happiest place: they knew. The following extracts from letters give some idea of this country work:

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PHOTO: "GOSPEL BOAT,
"October 28, 1887.

“Here we are, cosily ensconced in our little cabin. The passage was very quick, as we had a high wind in our favour. Such waves! We were tossed about like a nutshell in our Gospel boat.

50 JIN KO-NIU
"I sat on deck, and watched the last golden rays of the sun disappear as we passed through the 'sea's gate' into the river. Then the silver moon appeared and gilded all the ripples
in a pathway to the sky. Everything now looks so quiet and peaceful — the great hills stretching up to heaven and the tiny villages under the banyans sheltering at their feet.

PHOTO

"These country people, although nominally Christian, are dreadfully ignorant. Speak of women's work! It is, I think, most necessary. The women in these villages know nothing. When asked, 'Who is Jesus?' they cannot tell. They never pray. Yet some of these women are helpers' wives, and some have husbands who for years have attended church. Without women to teach them in their homes and behind the preacher's

UP-COUNTRY TRIPS 51
screens, they seem to come and go, and gel no teaching at all. I was much pleased to meet four former schoolgirls. Such a contrast!
***** "We have had a lovely day. Last night one of the helpers came in and planned out
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PHOTO: SUCH A CONTRAST!

our trip for us ; so we started off at eight o'clock, leaving the Bible-woman to go in another direction. Poor thing! she is so lonely, and for three nights had not slept at

52 JIN KO-NIU
all because of the dirt. These women have many hardships. We walked for the first hour of our trip, and did so enjoy it—such fresh country air and real highland scenery— rivers, and burns, and rocks, and high hills hemming us in—and such lovely fern-fronds at every turn. We had about two hours of chair-ride after our walk, and had some experience of fording rivers. Twice the water was so deep as to be above the men's knees, and nearly touched the bottom of our chairs. In one place we saw some men fishing from a raft of long slender logs. It seemed to act as ferry-boat as well, as I saw some men waiting to cross on it with burdens. For the most part, however, we were alone; not even a hamlet in sight.
"This place we have reached is so strange. The village is really one huge round tower—a blank wall to the outside, with tiny slit-like prison windows and a small entrance-gate. The church is built outside, but we went in to visit some Christians, and saw the interior. Just inside the thick stone wall, and lining its lower portion, is a row of wooden stalls, where many of the inhabitants live. Another strong stone tower, just like the outer one, rises within the stalls and towers above them. We step inside, and find ourselves in a large stone-paved court, open to the sky. It is, of course,

UP-COUNTRY TRIPS 53
circular, and a raised pavement runs round it. Doors open into rooms the thickness of the wall—dark, gloomy-looking places; but here the people live like one large family. We just sat and watched as the women sat at the doors, one picking a goose, another smoking, another nursing her baby, and so on. In one corner was a loom, in another the stone mill for husking rice. Piles of brushwood for fuel were collected in a . third corner, and in a fourth was a place where the rubbish of ages seemed stowed away. One of the girls took us upstairs to the second floor, also a ring of dwelling-houses. Another and broader flight of steps led to a third landing, where old chairs, bins of rice, etc., were kept; and one more climb led up to the attic, round which were stored the ancestral tablets and idols of the population ! Nicely out of the way! It was so strange to look down over the railing on one hand into the round court, with its busy groups of people, pigs, and hens, and on the other side to peer through the narrow windows in the thick masonry of the wall, at the natural rampart of mountains, and rivers beyond.
“While we were talking to a woman, a man came in and examined us most thoroughly, saying finally: 'What good fortune I have met with to-day to have seen these foreigners!'

54 JIN KO-NIU
We had a long talk with sonic old schoolgirls, and saw all the women church members in the place, then went home to supper. Looking up, we saw door and window packed with human heads—men's heads—watching us. They were strangers, had never seen the like of us before, and nothing would satisfy them but that we should go down and 'talk some doctrine.' They were most polite and
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55 UP COUNTRY TRIPS
attentive, listened for a long time, and went away praising the teaching.
"The people are always pleased when we talk a little to them. I was amused to hear

PHOTO: AMOY WOMEN’S SCHOOL

one of my chair-bearers—a heathen—speaking about us at a place where we rested. A man asked as usual, ‘Are they men or women?' 'Women,' 'Can they speak our words?' 'Oh yes! thoroughly well.’ 'Can

56 JIN KO-NIU
they read?'' Read! they read our words and their own words easily, and they read a great deal.’ 'Are they married?' 'No, they are ko-nius. They go about everywhere exhorting men to do right.'
***** " The scenery here reminds me much of Switzerland. Such an outlook down the valley, with its ripe rice-fields, terraced to the water's edge, and higher up pine-woods towering up the mountain-sides to the clear blue of the skies. The people are very simple and warm-hearted (1 wish they were cleaner!), and I think it is wonderful how they come willingly at the busiest time of the day to spend two or three hours over the Word of God. Many walk great distances to be in church on Sunday. There is a woman here we are trying hard to persuade to come to the women's school in Amoy. She is over sixty, but seems both intelligent and quiet—two important qualifications for a Bible-woman. Even though she might not become a regular Bible-woman, she would learn a great deal, and be able to help others if she would only come down."

*****
In later years the interest of this work was increased by the pleasure of visiting old pupils, seeing their homes and admiring their babies, who were eagerly shown to

UP-COUNTRY TRIPS 57
"Ko-niu Ma," or "Grandmother Ko-niu," Jessie had a large number of such grandchildren, and took a great delight in them, rarely forgetting their names, and always looking out for their mother's best characteristics to reappear in them. She writes again:
"I have been going from place to place spending a night at each. It is very hard to refuse to remain longer. The people find it difficult to understand why I won't stay with them, and each place seems to think it has a special claim. There arc the greatest opportunities on every hand, hundreds ready to listen, and so few to tell them what they need so much to hear. I have never seen such readiness to receive us, although we have always had open doors. We went to two villages to-day, which took us out of the way. At the first about twenty men meet for worship, but only one girl, who was in school for two months, knows anything on the women's side. She can read, fortunately— the Romanized, of course. I had a crowd of women there. At the next place there are a number of Christians, who meet at the house of one of them. Here there are very few women. We need to come oftener and get hold of the wives and daughters. We ought to lo be everywhere oftener."
This letter is written on one of her last journeys, for the need of workers is not

58 JIN KO-NIU
decreasing, hut growing, as the church spreads further and further over the rich plains and up the terraced hills of South China.
She loved a friendly chat with the pastors and preachers in the various stations. They are often very lonely, and the missionary's visit is a great help and stimulus. The conversation usually was about the women of the church and the girls who might conic down to school. Sometimes a thought from some commentary she had been reading was brought to bear on the lesson for the day, and the passage discussed, and at other times bits of news from the papers she had been reading in her chair.
The following is a letter from a young preacher to whom she had sent a clock. He is now pastor at Eh-mung-Kang.

LETTER FROM PASTOR YEW WHEN IN HIS FIRST CHARGE, A SMALL TOWN INLAND.
"All the Brethren and Sisters of Stonewell beg to thank you for the clock. Every evening since you sent it I have been able to read and speak to many of the Gospel. This is how it is: when it is evening, numbers of young people come in to hear the clock strike, and then I get them to stay for a talk. I am so glad of this, for since I
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UP-COUNTRY TRIPS 59
came to Stonewell we have had to have our evening prayers almost always alone, and now many attend.
"I thought I would like to tell you that the weather is cooler, so that perhaps you will be able to come to us. But please do not come in the second week of next month, as I must be away then.
"I hear that you have had sorrow.* I pray that God may comfort you. I also have had sorrow, and have received of His comfort. I cannot say any words of consolation, for I know you understand all the words of consolation in the Holy Book.
"May the Lord grant you peace from henceforth, that your heart may be free to serve Him, which is, I know, your greatest desire!
"Greetings from Hoai-tek."
* This refers to her brother's death in 1896.

HOSPITAL VISITING
ANOTHER important branch of the work is hospital visiting. It is a grand thing to see the poor sick folk being helped and healed, but it is a still greater joy to see them, whether healed or not, get the peace into their faces and the joy that comes from the knowledge of Christ. Once or twice a week the doctor arranges for out-patients to be seen. Sometimes these come in great numbers, and when they have received their " tally " they are drafted into the waiting-rooms for men and women. Many a time Jessie crossed the harbour and spoke in the crowded room to the waiting women, some half afraid to listen lest a spell be cast upon them ; others, who had been before, eagerly drinking in all that was said. When almost all have gone, the missionary finds her way up to the wards where the in-patients are, and gathers them and the relatives who are nursing them together for

HOSPITAL VISITING 6l
another talk. Again and again in Jessie's diary is found the entry, "Had such a good time at hospital"; and in her notebook the names of those present, and little details about them, or some of their remarks: "Tiong-so said to me to-day, 'I believe it

PHOTO: GROUP OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN ON DISPENSARY DAY

is true that Jesus loves us, because you love us so.'"
"Hok - so is troubled about devils. She had vowed that she would make offerings if she gut better, and feared they would trouble her if she did not pay her vow."
"I showed a picture of the 'Sower' to the

62 JIN KO-NIU
women to-day, and Ki-po-so said: “I used to hear them speak of that in church. I was not allowed to go, but when no one was by I went; and I thought I am like the seed among thorns; and I comforted myself that even if one stalk grows up among the thorns the farmer will see it; and I prayed that God would let me grow up, notwithstanding my troubles.’ "
Whenever she could she was glad to visit former patients. Indeed, the necessity of helping them after they leave, and the impossibility of overtaking it, is a burden on any hospital worker. Take the following example from a diary of 1888: "Went to hospital; in out-ward saw Kng-a. She seemed at first not to be interested, but presently said: 'I will tell you how it is. Ten years or so ago I went into hospital and heard the Gospel. I believed it, and went home to tell my friends. I thought they would believe, but instead they reviled and beat me. Still I believed, but my sons died, and my mother-in-law died, and I have had nothing but trouble all these years. The neighbours say it is because I worship God. I do not know how it may be."
The following from a letter written about this time may be of interest: "I had a nice talk with a woman in hospital yesterday. She and her daughter of twelve had never
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HOSPITAL VISITING 63
heard a word of the Gospel. She listened eagerly, and promised to pray daily, ' God, have mercy on me and forgive my sins.' Another woman had come two years ago, and remembered my being there and telling her to worship God. Still another followed me about to hear more, and seemed more or less impressed. It is such a responsibility to talk to them. I was thinking of Paul's words:
‘An Apostle by the commandment of God'
--one sent by God. If only a messenger, then only concerned with the delivery of the message. It is restful."
One more quotation must be given: "On Tuesday 1 went over to the hospital and saw a woman in whom I am interested. She wanted me to go to see her mother; but I had a whole ward of in-patients to talk to, so said I would go another time. We had hardly begun when some one called out that Miss A. had gone to see the outpatients, so the woman begged me to ask her to come upstairs and take my place, that I might be free to go with her to visit. I agreed, as I knew the wife of one of the pastors was with the out-patients. But you should have heard the indignation of the other women who were just gathered ready! One of them clutched me, and I had to disengage her hands, promising to come again and speak to them.

64 JIN KO-NIU
"When we reached the house a number of women came together. Three of them had dressed to go to the hospital to listen to the teaching there, and they were very attentive. I gave them a verse to remember for next time, as I hope to go again. The woman who led me would hardly let me go. When I said, ' You will be too late to see the doctor,' she replied: 'Oh, I can go next week; the doctrine is more important. Tell them more; they have never heard before.' I promised to go to her house in the afternoon. I had been twice before, so felt sure 1 knew the way; but found I was not so certain after all, as I took a wrong turning and could not make it out. However, I visited at least half a dozen houses, and could have gone into twice as many more had there been time. At one place they were gambling, but an old hospital patient dragged me in to speak to them.
"I was very sorry not to find the house I set out to visit. I heard afterwards that the woman had collected her neighbours and prepared tea for me. When I said, 'Oh, you must not get tea ready another time,' she said: 'You see, we want you to talk to us, and tell us a great deal about God; and you will get hoarse, so we must have tea, and then you can talk longer.’ I must go there again soon. When I told her that I

HOSPITAL- VISITING 65
had mistaken the way, although I had been twice already, she said: 'You see, how can we remember the heavenly way when we only hear it twice? Just as you forget the road, so we forget' Her father-in-law tries to hinder her, but every time I go she has a number of friends gathered to hear."

ALTHOUGH each different department of work in Amoy proved fascinating to Jessie, just as it happened to be the thing to be done, or, as she said, "It is a comfort to find that what one was to do always seems pleasantest," yet the girls’ school was perhaps nearest her heart. We sec her on the day of her arrival visiting the school, and next day being visited by them. In February she was giving lessons in reading to two backward children. She writes in an early letter:
"Round the school there is a veranda closed in with lattice-work, and doors lead into the different class-rooms, which, with their varnished forms and desks, maps and pictures, look a very cheery edition of an English school The teacher at her table quietly reading and the girls in their forms softly repeating their lessons are, however, very different, though in many ways as nice. All wear trousers, wide, loose, coloured ones, embroidered or

SCHOOL WORK
trimmed at the foot, and over them a long wide jacket buttoned down one side and embroidered round the neck. The sleeves are so long and loose that at first sight you

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PHOTO: TEACHER AND MATRONS

would imagine the people had no arms. The little girls are the funniest mites. I would give a good deal to be able to put one or two in a box to send you. I can only laugh at them when they come dancing round with

68 JIN KO NIU
their queer little pigtails sticking out all round. They usually wear their hair in a plait; not at the back of their heads, however, but at one side and sticking straight out. Then, above their foreheads, they sometimes have a narrow band of coloured cloth tied under their hair behind and waving in two long tails. The women often wear a black

PHOTO: “PIG TAILS STICKING OUT ALL ROUND."

band in winter to keep them warm. I can't see how it answers! The older girls wear long plaits or have their hair smoothly brushed buck and rolled into a flat ' bun' with pins and combs and bunches of gay artificial flowers. Every one has exactly the same glossy black shade. Such nice faces some have, the bigger ones sweet and gentle-

SCHOOL WORK 69
looking, the tinies rosy and mischievous. I must, however, tell you the whole truth — some are very ugly! One little thing 1 have up for reading, called Khun-a, is specially so, such a yellow little thing!"
It was very characteristic that a few weeks later she says: "Perhaps you remember my writing of Khun-a as such an ugly little thing. She looks a different being, and is brightening up, and quite a pleasure to teach."
A run down to school and a chat or a game with the girls was always a cure for threatenings of home-sickness in the early days. "Last night I was down at school. I had looked in on the girls on our way home from tennis, and they exhibited a little spinning machine for making braid. One of the bigger girls was delighted to show off and give me a lesson, amid shouts of laughter at my awkwardness in moving the bobbins. At last I succeeded in mastering the process, to their delight, and promised in return to come down in the evening and sing to them. So after supper and prayers I set off. The moon, which is bright just now, had hardly risen, so I had some difficulty in finding my way down to the school. Half a dozen girls were waiting at the gate and triumphantly seized my hands to escort me safely in, where matron, teacher and pupils were sitting at their desks to listen. I did not

70 JIN KO-NIU
venture to think of my temerity, and seated myself at the tiny American organ, while one girl stood behind fanning me. It was an inspiration to sing—all those eager faces bending forward. After a while I proposed 'When He cometh,' which they sang in

PHOTO: “WE HAD SUCH FUN ARRANGING PLANKS!”

Chinese and I in English. Then they were clamorous for marching, so we tried that. I wish you had been there to see! Chinese girls have plenty of fun in them, and are quick enough at learning.
"I trotted down to find the schoolgirls in a grand state of excitement fitting the bed-
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SCHOOL WORK 71
planks together. We had such a business— and the amount of talking and laughing over it! I was down ever so long superintending."
Sickness in the school was a sore worry to her, but with a number of boarders a good deal of "matron" work is necessary even when the Chinese matron is doing her best. The following letter gives an idea of what is involved when things were not going very well:
"Truly one's time is taken up with a variety of things! This morning, after breakfast, I went down to school to inspect the sick girls, and was collared by the matron to listen to a string of complaints about the difficulty of buying vegetables. After soothing her down, I had to go into the last fortnight's accounts to sec if the food was all right. Then down to school again with the doctor to see a girl who he fears has diphtheria. After he went, I had to dose her and get a room cleared out for her to be isolated from the others. Then a lecture to another girl who had bound her feet in the holidays and is threatened with hip disease. Again a talk about buying another bed, patching quilts and arranging which girls should sleep together, some being ill, some small, and some rough and others dainty. That settled, I had to collect empty medicine-

72 JIN KO-NIU
bottles and have them sent to the hospital to be refilled, and attend to an order for eye-bandages, so what can I do about my home mail?"
This part of school work was to her the least attractive. She writes very characteristically: "I give arsenic to four girls three times a day. It is a bother, as it has to go on for a month. They are dear girls!"
Long journeys were often taken to get some special little recreant down to school if she had failed to appear when the term began. And Jessie would often arrive back from a trip taken at the commencement of a term, like the piper of Hamelin, with a train of young hopefuls behind her, whom she had lured from their homes.
In school there was good order and discipline, with very few rules and almost no punishments. On one occasion the matron had complained of several girls that they were very careless, and when she had told them to do their work again, they had been rude to her. This charge was made so seriously that Jessie felt the delinquents must be treated in an exemplary manner. So she called the school together and pointed out the wrong, and then, ruler in hand, called out the girls of whom the matron had complained in turn, and gave a few strokes on the palm to each. The caning was both an

SCHOOL WORK 73
unaccustomed and an unpleasant task to her, and she was terribly afraid of hurting them. She noticed that the young sinners, who came up weeping, went away comforted, and realized that to them the punishment was very slight. With her usual readiness, after

PHOTO: A LESSON IN GEOGRAPHY.
all was over, she told them solemnly that this time she had only punished" to the point of sham "! If it had to be done again it would be" to the point of pain" as well. It never had to be done again.
As to the curriculum, that was slowly evolved. The founders of the school made

74 KO-NIU
the formation of Christian character the first object, and Jessie realized that that must be always of paramount importance. Bible lessons and learning to read, so that the Hook

PHOTO: PUPILS IN GIRLS' SCHOOL, AMOY: DOING SUMS
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might be studied by each girl for herself, took the first place. Other lessons naturally followed, such as geography and history. Arithmetic was carried to its utmost limits, the older girls being led to understand the

SCHOOL WORK 75
why and wherefore of a cube-root rule, and to think a problem in the comparative rates at which the planets revolve—a fascinating riddle! Chinese girls have good heads, and

PHOTO: PUPILS IN GIRLS' SCHOOL. AMOY: WASHING DAY

yet are so apt to rely on memory that great stress was laid on this study, so as to teach them to think and reason. Classes in very elementary astronomy, geology, and physiology were as great a pleasure to the

76 JIN KO-NIU
teacher as to the taught, and the lessons were enlivened with quaint and ingenious illustrations.
An essay appended here shows a very crude attempt at composition.

"ESSAY ON THE EARTH."
The earth has mountains and houses and trees. It also has men and Bibles to look at. It also has water and girls' schools. It has birds and umbrellas and chairs to sit on. It has seas and churches and boats and clocks to see, and gardens to play in, and geography and organs and fields. It has serpents and dogs and pigs and clothes to wear. The earth has pomegranates and the earth has lamps and stoves and leaves and tables and streets and ducks and grass and graves and sheep and fruit and hymns to sing and potatoes. "MEK A."
Jessie's genuine love for the girls never failed to beget love, and when any child was too shy to ask an interview, a tiny note was slipped into her hand or between the pages of her book, or sent up to the house by a small messenger. An amusing specimen, the only one to hand, is added. Sin-a had evidently been in disgrace for some es-

SCHOOL WORK 77
capade, but was not quite sure where the fault lay.
LETTER TO TEACHER LOVE, THE GREAT ONE RECEIVE.
"Lately I heard that Teacher's precious body was not well. Is it now better?
"This foolish pupil received Teacher's jade-stone letter, her heart rejoiced knowing that Teacher loved as formerly her stupid scholar.
"Teacher, you are, of course, full of wisdom and knowledge, and therefore understand about every matter. I am just like a little bird flying In space, when suddenly a bad man comes and sets a trap to catch it; or like a little lamb running after its mother to eat grass, when, all at once, a cruel dog bites it; or like a cicada in a tree which a wicked child catches and eats. . .. Teacher, if this foolish one has done wrong, I hope you will forgive, and be graciously pleased to write a precious line to let this stupid one know.
"This foolish one's humble hands have written these unsightly words : may I hope that Teacher's honourable eyes will stoop to read ?
" SIN-A, THE FOOL."
A letter from another child, when Jessie

78 JIN KO-NIU
was at home on furlough, is just such a newsy one as she loved to receive.
LETTER WRITTEN BY “BLACK SILK “ WHEN IN SCHOOL AT AMOY (HER STORY IS GIVEN ON P. 182).
Letter to the K'o-niu we love.
"Since you left we have already received three letters from you, and a photograph at which we may all look. These have given us great pleasure, and all your pupils are grateful.
“We have been doing arithmetic from weights and measures up to interest. In our Scripture lesson we have been reviewing from Genesis to Malachi, especially taking up types of Christ. We have done geography and maps. We have besides had lessons in teaching just as you used to give us. Hoat-a gave a model lesson in arithmetic, Him-aon "Pilgrim's Progress," See-a on Character, Toan-a on Scripture, and we all criticized.
"Now I have to give you some sad news. Teacher Pure has lost her mother. I think it was plague. Nui's mother has died of the same disease, and also Iu's father. Kui-a's mother has died of plague, and she has gone home and can't return to school.
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SCHOOL WORK 79
Plague is very had at E-mung-kang. At first we were allowed to go over on Sundays to help teach, but now we are forbidden, so we don't go. These things have made us very sad, but we know God must have a good reason for allowing them to happen.
"As to my father, he has given up gambling, but he is not yet quite cured of the opium habit. The Church has suspended him from Communion, but they hope he may give up smoking and repent. I am praying that he may.
"I hope you are well. We are well. The matron has invited me to go home with her these holidays, and 1 have been allowed to
go-
"Your pupil,
"Tiu."

Plague is mentioned in the above letter. Each year it returns and carries hundreds of victims to the grave. The following from Jessie, written at a country station, gives some idea of what is meant by the words, "Plague has broken out in China":
"Plague is raging here. In the street, parallel with the chapel, there have been eight deaths in the last day or two ; and here, in our own chapel street, there were two deaths yesterday in the house opposite, and one in a Christian family next door, besides

80 JIN KO-NIU
others in the same street. A man was here in the chapel yesterday morning. He went to help in the house opposite—the street is narrow enough almost to shake hands across —and came back feeling ill. He lay down in a room here and got fever and became unconscious. His son came and fetched him home in a chair- -tied in, as he could not sit up. I hear he is a little better to-day. They usually cither die or get better in a day. The rats are dying in great numbers. We went to see a woman in trouble as her son is in debt. On both sides her neighbours have died of plague. One girl from next door sent in to beg for a basin of rice. She had a good meal and died directly after. Her sister died the same day—yesterday. I have just opened the window, and hear another beginning to wail for the dead."
Being very reserved about her own spiritual life, Jessie made no effort to probe the secrets of her pupil's hearts, though she had many earnest talks with them, and was very glad when they would tell her that they had decided to serve Christ. She preferred that a girl should join the Church when at home either during the long summer vacation or after leaving school. She explains her reasons for this:
"I do not approve of the girls joining the Church when at school. It is better to let

SCHOOL WORK 81
them be tested in their own villages first. It is an encouragement, too, to the country pastors to receive members in their own churches At this Presbytery I had the sorrow of hearing of one of our old girls shut out from membership because she never went to church. I remember her as one of my favourites when I arrived, before I could speak much. Her name was "Joy," and she was a bonny, bright girl. She was admitted to Church membership, but when she left school her home was in heathen surroundings, her people cold and indifferent, and so she gradually succumbed to worldly influences, bound her feet, and gave up attending church. She had little help, poor child! If she had not been admitted to the Church in Amoy, I can't help thinking she would not have been looked upon as a black sheep, and might have had more encouragement. At any rate, her falling away would not have been so injurious to the school and to the cause of educating girls.
"I find it very difficult to get at the girls. They will talk or pray with ease but what is their real self it is very hard to see. One has to watch their lives. It is so easy for the Chinese to talk or write."
She did all she could to help and encourage old pupils by visits and letters, and rejoiced greatly in their faithfulness. "We saw a
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82 JIN KO-NIU
very bonny, healthy-looking girl who, in her grandfather's days, was in school, but on his death was removed, and now has nothing but heathen uncles and aunts. She has stood out steadily against worshipping her dead grandmother, will not bind her feet, and insists on being married to a Christian. It is wonderful how she has kept firm in spite of jeers and taunts. I wish we could have her in school again. There is good hope of her marrying a preacher."
This leads on to the subject of Jessie's match-making. Force of circumstances led her into it. In visiting the churches inland she would often find a good, earnest preacher doing all he could for the place, in which he was stationed, but tied to a raw heathen girl or one who was Christian only in name, and in no way a "helpmeet." Such a wife is not only useless for teaching the women, but is a positive hindrance, and Jessie took far too lively an interest in the churches to be able to look on such a slate of affairs with indifference. Again, when one of her brightest pupils was married to a very ignorant, loutish fellow she felt it keenly. So when any student applied through a friend, via the senior missionary, for a bride from the school, the opportunity to assist in the choice was not allowed to slip. Sometimes it was the mother of a girl, who begged that a

SCHOOL WORK 83
suitable husband might be found for "Sweetness" or "Gold-needle." On such occasions Dr. McGregor always had to give a very full account of the students he had who were not yet engaged. Their mental and moral attainments were carefully gone into, and the temperaments of the prospective bride

PHOTO: BRIDES FROM THE SCHOOL.

and bridegroom, that, if possible, they might be so balanced as to bring about in more important matters that mutual accommodation for which Mr. and Mrs. Jack Spratt were so noted. In speaking of this subject, Chinese custom in marriage must be remembered. No personal choice is ever possible,

84 JIN KO-NIU
as neither may sec the other, much less have any conversation. A "go-between" is always needed. This "go-between" may be bribed or influenced in many ways, so that she is not always to be relied upon.
Jessie writes: "B. is going regularly to church, and is anxious to come to the women's school. She told me that when she spoke of coming to read, her mother-in-law said: 'All right. If you ask the ko-niu to get a wife for my second son, who can take your place here and wait on me, I am quite willing for you to read.' So she asked me to find one for her. I have, unfortunately, a good many such matters on hand just now. The father of one of our girls wishes to go to Formosa, and has a daughter whose future troubles him. He says his father is constantly advising him to sell her, and get capital to engage in business. 'What is the use of having a girl worth more than a hundred dollars a big, healthy daughter of seventeen - if you don't sell her?' However, the father wishes me to take her as a wife for my table-boy at 60 dollars, instead of 120 dollars which he could easily get from a heathen. What do you think of the proposal?
One girl, who had rapidly passed through school, doing very well in every subject, and early becoming teacher, and at last head

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teacher in the school, had an idea that she would like to be as Jin Ko-niu herself, and live the single life of bliss! But such notions received no encouragement, and when a particularly choice young preacher was wanting a real helpmeet this advanced young woman was persuaded to allow her consent to be given, and they were married. Not long after "Pure" admitted to being very happy, and although it is ten years ago now, they are still "very happy." "Pure" is managing to combine most successfully the duties of wife, mother, housekeeper, and curate.
The following letter is from Pu-a, who was another such miltum in parvo. She was a miserable little slave-girl, rescued by Dr. Lang from n cruel mistress, and sent to the Amoy school. She helped to nurse the children in the Home, and was later married to a preacher in a small town. She died, having caught infection nursing a plague-stricken woman.
"Teacher. I am now living far from you, and it is hard to send letters to and fro, and to tell and to hear news. However, there is now an opportunity, and so 1 wish to write a few words, which will be like paying you a little visit. I hope you are strong and well.
"I am at River-end, and have opened a

86 JIN KO-NIU
little school. There are old women, girls, and boys studying in it—about a dozen altogether. I hope you will pray that God will grant His Holy Spirit's help, that I may know how to teach them, because, with the children and adults together, it is very difficult. I beg of you to pray that I may be a help to them all.
"I wonder when you will be able to come and visit River-end. I would so much like to see you again. We have bought a site, but have not money yet to build a church. Do pray that we may be able soon to build, and that the hearts of many may be opened to give.
"I often think of you and of all your kindness. Please remember me to the children in the Home.
“PU-A writes”
Jessie believed strongly in giving her pupils positions of responsibility as soon as possible. Often a girl, who had been growing a little slack in her work, was braced to greater self-respect by having a few backward juniors handed over to her for extra coaching. Any improvement in these was noticed, and a word of praise to the young teacher proved, perhaps, the turning-point of effort for herself.
Sixty-five of Jessie's pupils have been,

SCHOOL WORK 87
or still are, teachers. Over twenty are the wives of preachers or teachers, eight or ten the wives of pastors, and three are doctors.
Eleven years by Chinese calculation, which is nine or ten by ours, was considered the best age at which to admit pupils to the

PHOTO: SIXTY-FIVE PUPILS IN AMOY SCHOOL WHO ALL BECAME TEACHERS.

Amoy boarding-school. The course of study was planned out for six years, and in the last two years of her course the pupil had lessons in the art of teaching and assisted with the younger classes. This normal training was a great help to the girls, for in the few years

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between school-days and marriage they could be used to meet the great demand for teachers, not only in the large centre schools at Chi'ncheu, Changpu, and Eng-chhun, but sometimes also in the schools of the London and American Missions.
Another important sphere for these girls is the country schools. Each large centre, such as Amoy, has several districts or pastorates worked from it. Jessie's ambition was to have a little girls' boarding-school in connexion with each of these. Sometimes a would be pupil is too young to enter the Amoy school. Or, again, she or her relatives may be unwilling for the long journey or reluctant to unbind her feet. A few terms at one of these schools often creates a desire to learn more and willingness to conform to the rules of the big boarding-school. There are also women at many of these inland places who want to learn to read and to have an opportunity of being taught Bible-truth, and yet cannot find time or opportunity for a couple of terms in the Amoy women's school. These come for longer or shorter periods to the country school, and study under the young teacher, who has no easy task with such mixed ages and stages to manage. The pastor's wife, if she is a suitable woman, acts as adviser and matron, and the ko-niu must pay frequent visits to in-

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spect, encourage, and counsel the girl who has been placed in this somewhat lonely and difficult sphere. References to these little schools are constantly found in her letters, and below then; is an account of an examination at one of them:

PHOTO: BAY-PAY SCHOOL EXAMINATION.

"I came on to Bay-pay to-day to examine the girls' school. For the last fortnight we have had a downpour of rain; as the heathen say, 'Heaven has broken its bottom.' Everything is dripping and mouldy, and the roads are turned into pitfalls of clay and mire.
"We had an amusing few minutes landing at Pechuia, where a stretch of ooze lay between the river and the chapel. They fetched me some straw mats, but the men went barefoot, and the mud was a good way over their ankles. The worst of it was that the mats slipped at each step over the soft mud, so that, in spite of two helpers and an umbrella, it was all I could do to cross without a fall.
"Next morning I heard the rain drip again, and feared there was no prospect of getting on; however, the boy had managed to get a chair, and it really cleared a little, so we started off. The row in the canal boat between the rice-fields was pleasant. Just

90 JIN KO-NIU
as we were getting into it, a huge red idol with a black beard was being carried out of a temple to go the round of the boats, as there is a good deal of plague about, and they look to him to stop it.
"Down the road a party of girls and

PHOTO: MAN A

women were gathering scarlet arbutus berries, which looked pretty among their green leaves. Some coolies had laid down their loads and were picking and eating the fruit, and there seemed to be a good deal of talk going on. Passing through the half-way village, many of the women, sitting inside

SCHOOL WORK
their doorways spinning or sowing, smiled to us and called out a greeting. The houses look comfortless, and seem to have no room for anything.

PHOTO: WOMEN AT THEIR DOORWAYS SPINNING.

"By the time we reached Bay-pay the rain had begun to fall again; but the women and girls were waiting, and I was so glad that I had come, though my dress was still quite damp from the soaking of the day

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before, and 1 could not put on my shoes at all, as the boy, in washing them to remove the thick mud, had made them wetter than they were before!
"This afternoon I have been hearing their lessons. They have done very well indeed. All can read a little, even those who only came a month ago. One little girl of ten repeated the first three chapters of the Gospel of John, was questioned in the life of Christ, and read and translated several chapters in character. Her copy-books were in both character and Roman letters, and she could do sums in three rules.
"All but two, one girl and one woman, have unbound their feet, which has been a hard piece of work. Binding is a universal custom here. One girl is very anxious to come, but her father says if she unbinds he will either break her legs or make her do coolie work like a man.
"One of the girls has five brothers, named respectively Iron-Beater, Pewter-Beater, Silver-Beater, Brass-Beater, and Rice-Beater. Brass-Heater became a Christian, and after many years of opposition his mother and two elder brothers have followed him. So the sister has unbound her feet and come to school. She is a bright girl, and in less than a month has learned to spell out words. I gave her and three others

SCHOOL WORK 93
New Testaments. The rest got bags with thimbles and needles, and all were greatly pleased."
Little children were always a delight to Jessie, and when in 1887 the missionaries found it necessary to start a baby home, she was appointed secretary. Visits to the Home

PHOTO: SOME OF THE 40 CHILDREN IN THE AMOY HOME
were very frequent. She writes: "The children are darlings; such wee chatterboxes. I love them dearly, and even the baby cries to come to me." Illness there meant much care and trouble. From the small beginning of half a dozen little cast-out girls there are now over forty at present

94 JIN KO NIU
in the Home. Three or four of the "chatterboxes" above mentioned have now babies of their own, and are doing good work in their homes. Moa and Hoe, who are referred to on page 140, are Home children.
The women's school has been mentioned. In Amoy there is a solid red-brick building, erected as a memorial of an American lady, and in that is held the adult school for the women of all three missions. It is very difficult for a woman in a village- say at five to eight or ten miles from church—to get instruction. Perhaps her men - folk have heard the Gospel preached in the little town to which they have gone on regularly recurring market - days, and she may have heard from them enough to make her long to hear more. They can go on Sundays to Church and weekly gain in knowledge, but her bound feet, and, still more, the bindings of custom, prevent her, if at all young, from going the long walk to service. For such as she the women's school is a veritable gate of heaven. Sometimes it is a heathen girl who has been from infancy engaged to some young man who, having lately heard the Gospel, wishes his wife to know something of it too. Besides, there are a few who are thought suitable for Bible-women, and these are trained in a longer course of study. Less of this work fell to Jessie's share, as

SCHOOL WORK 95
the Americans take by far the larger part of the work, and it must be confessed that she found the obtuse country-women less congenial than the bright schoolgirls. One short extract must, however, be given:
"I first remember Bian-so at the women's school. The advanced class had just finished their lesson, when some one said; 'Bian-so has prepared something to read with you, ko-niu.' So I sent for her and she soon appeared, a great, stout, rosy-cheeked young woman of twenty six or so. She was very shy of me, and could hardly screw up courage to read a verse or two, but after a little we became great friends. Her husband was a preacher, but she was much opposed to the doctrine, and had even gone so far as to drag him out of the chapel one day. Her babies died, and she was so far softened as to come and read in the women's school for a term. She told me afterwards that she really understood very little that first term, the singing and praying were all so new to her.
"When Bian-so went home, her mother was very angry because she had been in Amoy, and the neighbours would have nothing to say to her, and looked at her as if she were a 'big tail of fish,' as she told me afterwards. Matters became so serious that her husband was obliged to bring her

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down to Amoy one night under cover of the darkness. I remember so well running across to the college to see her. She was getting supper ready in the kitchen, and a tremendous thunderstorm came up, with torrents of rain and loud peals of thunder. She did not seem to think of the lightning that blazed in at the door, as she told me how ever)' one was against her. Her brother had tried to kill her, and her husband could not interfere, in case of raising a clan fight. Some women had managed to stop him, and knock the long pipe with which he was beating her out of his hand. She seemed rather indignant with her husband. He is rather a weak man, I fear. I reminded her how badly she had treated him. That amused her, and she smiled as she said: 'Yes, I did not only scold, I beat him well.' Poor woman! her knowledge of the truth was so slight to stand all the persecution she met. I could only point to the black hanging clouds, and remind her of how soon they would pass away and the sun shine again.
"Last autumn I visited Kang-bay, a few houses clustered together among rice-fields. It was a stormy afternoon, and my chair was nearly blown away, so 1 was glad when at last the key of the church was forthcoming, and I could find shelter in the missionaries' little den off the meeting-room.

SCHOOL WORK 97
“Soon the door opened, and Bian-so appeared, breathless from a hurried walk across the fields. How nice it was to see her, and what a good talk we had!
"'Well, Bian-so,' I said at last, 'do you remember the thunderstorm and our talk in the kitchen?'
"'Indeed I do. It was only last night I was telling Ham-sian' (the woman who saved her from her brother and who had joined us) 'about it. (God has been good to me. First He took away my babies, and so led me to Amoy to learn about my Saviour. Then I did not know very much, and He let my mother and friends get angry so that I was driven back to learn more, and now Me has made them kind to me again.' And she told how her mother had begged her to return, and how every one seemed pleased to sec her.' When I think of Jesus and His love to me, it fills my throat,' she said; and her eyes were full of tears as she spoke. Just a few months before one of the bitterest opponents of the 'worship,’ now she is an earnest helper."

FIRST FURLOUGH (1893-1894)

JESSIE'S first term of seven and a half years in Amoy was -in almost unbroken record of splendid health. She was very careful in early days to do nothing rash. She was helped in this by what sin: used laughingly to declare was her mother's parting text to her: "A living dog is better than a dead lion." Warned of the strength of the sun, she was willing to use a sun-helmet and white-covered umbrella. Sunset chills were guarded against with a little wrap. No one was more ready to take advice from those whom she knew had more experience than herself. When her sister came out, she preached to her what she herself had practised when she said : " Do as people tell you in your first year or two, and then you will find out what you can stand." She found she could stand a great deal, and her long journeys in rain and sun, and fearless facing of hardships, were perhaps made

FIRST FURLOUGH 99
possible by the care in her days of acclimatization.
A journey home by America had been planned, but the wife of a missionary being ordered home ill, Jessie took instead the ordinary route home, so as to help her and her children on the journey.

What a home-coming it was! Jessie, as eldest sister, had always taken an immense pride in the doings and sayings of the younger ones. One notebook is labeled "Facts about the Children in case any become famous!" Many early letters bemoan that she will never see them again as

100 JIN KO-NIU
they were when she left. Two happy summers were spent all together at Swanage and Eydon, and in the winter a great deal of deputation work was done. Speaking was not a burden to Jessie as it is to some, perhaps partly because she made no speeches, and only told her story of the work and the people. Her manner was very natural, and her own interest so evident that listeners could not but feel the influence. One who heard her writes: "When on furlough, Miss Johnston was full of life and energy and contagious enthusiasm for the great cause of our China Mission, which she loved so much." In going about in the various presbyteries she made many friends, and was always interested afterwards in the churches she had visited. Another writes: "My husband's friend used to say to me,' I wish you knew Miss Johnston—you would like her’; and I did like her. No one could help it, I should think. She spoke at our meeting. She was so perfectly natural, and when she spoke she did not use set phrases, but made us feel in touch with the work at once."
Not only at the meetings, but in talks at other times, her earnest purpose could not but be felt." 1 don't know that I have ever met anyone who made me want more to go to the foreign field," is the report of a minister.

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On the last day of October, 1894, Jessie sailed again for Amoy. Some verses written by her young brother at this time picture her as those at home saw her during those days :
“Some time ago the eldest went
To far off lands, who, having spent
A week of years, a number meet
To prove her term was quite complete,
Returned that she might serve two ends—
Her own advantage and her friends’.
“A ship must land to fill with coal,
Enough to last the stoker's hole:
So came she hack from labour's sea
To fill her store with energy.
Altho' 'twas quite, as all remarked.
As full as when she first embarked,
Or fuller—hush ! —the voyage back
Had doubtless well supplied the lack!
She also came to sit and let
Her friends and all among us get
A chance within our minds to paint
Afresh, what time had made so faint;
And now we have her portrait right
In gaudy colours new and bright,
And in a thousand changing ways
The canvas of our mind displays
The chiefest object of our thought
In pictures accurately wrought.
“One has her pensive, almost sad;
Another, eminently glad.
We see her arguing with force;
Up goes her hand—' That's it, of course!'
Engraved for ever on this slab
We have her grinning from a cab’

102 JIN KO-NIU

Here chased by cows through five-barred gates,
Here seizing all the dinner-plates;
This, putting on her specs to see
Which of the puddings it will be;
Now calling mice a pesky brood.
Now preaching to a multitude;
Mere sitting silent, mending socks,
Or packing up her curio box :
And many other living scenes
Are pictured on our mental screens."

SECOND TERM
(1895-1900)

JESSIE arrived in Amoy, for her second term of service, on the morning of New Year's Day, 1895, and that day received calls from 300 people. Though she had heartily enjoyed her furlough, she was genuinely delighted to be back in the midst of all the work and the people she loved so well. She was glad to note: improvement in various places, and tells of this in the following letters:
"Eh-MUNG-KANG.
"We are having encouragement in Eh-mung-kang. Last Sunday's text was Psalms cxxvi. 6,* and I could not help thinking of the former days when Sunday after Sunday
* "He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him."

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one's heart sank at the sight of empty forms, while now our little room is well filled with regular attendants, and we are able to divide the women into two classes for instruction. They have to stand out against much opposi-

PHOTO: EH-MUNG KANG CHURCH BUILDINGS.

tion, and it is often a wonder to us how, with their little knowledge, they keep firm. One woman, whose son has disowned her, persists in coming, although she knows that on her return she may find her pigs sold or her fowls

SECOND TERM 105
killed. She is often four or five meals without being able to cook anything, and has either to go without food or beg her dinner from a neighbour in exchange for washing or sewing for her. Another has met with death after death in the family, and all her neighbours tell her it is on account of her for-

PHOTO: PASTOR AND FAMILY

saking the idols. Still she comes regularly, 'I can understand the words, but not the meaning, of what I hear,' she says. 'When will God make it plain to me?' Another who, after months of visiting, at last was persuaded to venture to church, had a serious illness which lasted for weeks. In spite of the scorn of her neighbours she is coming

106 J1N KO-NIU
twice every Sunday, and is praying for her brothers, one of whom has begun to come with her. I was showing pictures the other day, and was surprised at her asking very earnestly, 'Who was that with one arm raised?' It turned out to be a picture of the Lord speaking to Nicodemus, which I had passed over hurriedly, as one does not often show pictures of the Saviour. She was so anxious to know, that I told her, and asked why she was interested in that picture specially. 'Because,’ she answered, 'the other night that figure came to me and told me not to be afraid, but to try to learn more. I knew at once when I saw the picture that it was the same. Her husband has failed in business since her coming, but she is still bright and faithful in her attendance.
"To us it is very strange how in Eh-mung-kang every one who begins to believe seems to meet with trouble immediately. We would try to make it smooth and easy for the new-comers, but we know it must be all right, though our hearts are often sore for them, and we wonder why they have such fires to go through—fires that would try the faith of some of the strongest of us. There is not one in the congregation who has not a hard struggle. Do pray for us and them. We long so for Christ’s Church to be firmly established in Kh-mung-kang.”

SECOND TERM 107
No life seemed to Jessie so well worth living as that of a missionary, and she always hoped to be joined by some of the brothers and sisters. When, eighteen months after her return to Amoy, one of the younger sisters had written that there was a chance she might come out, she wrote eagerly: "What a girl you are! You write that you are 'more than willing to be a missionary,' and here is the chance slip, slipping. I find it so difficult to wait. The committee write me that they are looking for some one, and you leisurely tell me of all your doings, and add this sentence that sets me dancing with impatience. Every one asks if none of my sisters are coming, and I never know what excuse to make for you. I am envious for you that you should have the joy of the life here. There is no work to compare with it, in my mind."
Later, when she heard that the doctor's verdict was favourable, she wrote again: "I have been sinking songs of thankfulness in my heart. I am so glad for you. There is such a grand field here. It seems such an honour for us to be allowed to occupy it. Dear child, don't be frightened. I have found it so true,’ My God shall supply all your need.' We have such need, such wants, but the supply is all-sufficient. There is nothing like teaching for helping you in

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Bible knowledge too. . . , Good night. May God guide you and keep you wherever your lot may be cast!"
One of the chief events of her second term of work was the Women's Conference, the first of its kind, in South China at any rate. She writes of it:
"How I wish you could have been with us in the Douglas Memorial Church and seen the place! The screen usually dividing men's and women's sides of the church removed, and the crowd of eager, interested faces stretching from platform to door. It has been from beginning to end a great success.
"Last summer Miss D. begged me to try and arrange a gathering of our teachers for mutual help and encouragement. It seemed rather a difficult undertaking, but we kept the thought in mind, and in spite of a busy winter's work managed to make out a programme and talk this over with one and another, so that by spring our plans were matured enough to permit of sending invitations north, south, west and even east to the native mission station in Quemoy, with the result that over 100 delegates reached Kolong-su for a week of meetings, discussion and prayer. All these were the wives of pastors and preachers, Bible-women, school-teachers, etc. It has been grand!

PHOTO: MEMBERS OF AMOY WOMEN WORKERS’ CONFERENCE, 1898

110 JIN KO-NIU
At one meeting seventeen spoke, of whom only five were European. Each mounted to the pulpit and gave a five-minute speech so modestly and clearly that we were filled with wonder and thanksgiving. At another meeting twenty-eight spoke, some only a word or two, others at greater length, answering questions previously allotted to them, so that the answers might be thought out and prepared.
"To the Chinese it has been a revelation. Some wished the meetings might go on for ever. A few of those in charge, however, were very glad to see the last batch of delegates safely off to their homes. It is no light matter to arrange for mothers and babies and young girls traveling in China, especially in this hot weather."
The growth of the work was a care as well as a joy. "Mr. T. came back from up-country and gave us an interesting account at the prayer-meeting. At Siong-si the preacher and sixteen brethren take it in (urn to go out twice a week to preach to heathen ; as a consequence the chapel is crowded, seats have been bought and an awning erected in the yard, but even with that, there is still no room, so that they do not know how to invite new-comers, as there is no place for them. At Chinchew they said there were 600 at church on Sunday. There thirty-two men

SECOND TERM 111
go out to preach twice a week, and now they are starling the plan at An-hai, and sixteen have given in their names as willing. At Chioh-sai, a new station, they could not get the people away at nights. They would listen as long as the Christians had voice to speak.
"Mr. T. said to me it seemed as if we had prayed fur blessing at the New Year, and now it had come we could not take full advantage of it, greatly for want of money. Sites offered we had prayed for long and now can't buy—people ready and no place for them. What does the home Church mean ?"
Success means invariably growth of expenditure. Jessie herself found that, and declared it "very interesting to invest one's money in this way."
To her sister in Damascus she wrote: "My aim is to have two Bible-women for each of the pastorates and one for Eh-mung-kang, and also to have a school in each for women and girls to learn to read the Bible, Pechuia School is now open. It is so nice and convenient. Bay-pay will be open next week, I hope. It, too, is very nice, and I am hoping against hope to manage one at An-hai this year, and perhaps at Chi-be next year. The Bay-pay one took at least £15 (which I managed), and the church itself put out over £5 -- most marvelous! You can't

112 JIN KO-NIU
think how wonderful it is lo have the natives do anything for girls' education. I have promised to go North in a month or two to see about An-hai. i fear it will take another £10 or £20. I could manage it, but fear I shall have to go away this summer, which would mean extra expense. It means planning. It's awfully interesting to be a missionary! Don't you think so?"

FURLOUGH IN 1900 Back to top http://www.amoymagic.mts.cn (in China) http://www.amoymagic.com (outside China) Amoy Magic -- Guide to Xiamen and Fujian

THE summer of 1898 was spent in Ku-liang, and was the first she had not passed in Amoy except when on furlough. When her next term was completed, she and the two Misses Talmage journeyed home by Egypt and Palestine and visited her sister in Damascus, who was working under the British Syrian Mission. To her father she writes : " You say you never had any great desire to visit the Holy Land. I have always felt that too, but this visit has been a revelation, and made the Bible a more living book. It has opened it up in a way I could not have believed. For one thing, the Holy Land is so small. Although one reads of and hears this, only a visit can make it real. From the hill above Nazareth we could sec the Plain of Esdraelon, with so many cities named in both Old and New Testaments—the whole area steeped in history, and the view ranging from Carmel by the sea to Hermon in the north, and the hills beyond the Jordan Valley to the east."

114 J1N KO-NIU

PHOTO: In Appearance Syrian Girls Surpassed the Chinese

A journal was kept of this trip, and after returning to China, she showed curios and spoke to many of what she had seen Small bottles with water from the Red Sea, Nile, Dead Sea, and Jordan, caused, perhaps, the greatest sensation, some even going the length of tasting a drop from each. One woman said: "Well, I always believed in Jerusalem, but now that you have seen it I know that it must be there!" With the aid of heets and sundry black skirts Syrian women of various sects were represented by the schoolgirls at a women's meeting. But the effect was so realistic that the women were much embar-

FURLOUGH IN 1900
rassed, and were with difficulty persuaded that the "coat does not make the man."
During the six or seven weeks which Jessie spent at Damascus she helped in some of the English classes in her sister's school, "St. Paul's." Her pupils here soon took a high place in her affections, and she kept a note of their names, and used to ask after many of them. She once went the length of saying that in appearance the Syrian children surpassed the Chinese! Thence the journey was continued through Switzerland home.
Six months later, in January, 1901, she started for China via the United States, where she was to meet the Misses Talmage, and return with them. So the trip round the world was successfully accomplished, and became a pleasant memory.

LAST YEARS (1901-1907) Back to top http://www.amoymagic.mts.cn (in China) http://www.amoymagic.com (outside China) Amoy Magic -- Guide to Xiamen and Fujian

HER last years in China had now begun, and were at first full and busy as before, with school, visiting, and all the other routine of mission life.
At her desk Jessie loved to work, writing letters to interest home friends, or studying and translating or preparing books for Chinese use. This was chiefly done in collaboration with Miss M. Talmage, to whose friendship from her earliest missionary days she owed so much. A short, simple Life of Christ, an easy Catechism, a Teacher's Handbook, and several tracts and short articles, both in Chinese and English were their joint work. But a primer for the study of character by progression from the simpler to the more complicated characters, classifying each under its radical, and giving exercises in writing after each reading lesson, was the chef-d’oeuvre. The pupil is carried on step by step, understanding the proper

LAST YEARS 117
value of each character as well as its name and meaning, till, after mastering the three volumes, he is able to write letters, do accounts, and read the Bible and any ordinary newspaper in Classical (Wenli). It has been adopted as a school text-book in many places, and the new missionaries find it a great help in their studies. The help of a Chinaman was, of course, required for this work, and the tutor of the Theological College, during vacation, was of the greatest assistance, and took a deep interest in the preparation of the book.
Jessie's relations with her fellow-missionaries were always of the happiest, and she was glad of the close fellowship enjoyed with the American and London missionaries. With the clerical and medical missionaries of her own mission she was on the friendliest terms, and felt strongly that the work of men and women was one, and the more each knew of the other's doings, and the more mutual consultation and arrangement there was, the better the work of both would progress.
A member of another mission in Amoy writes of her: "Jin was loved not only by her own mission, but the members of other missions here, both native and foreign, claimed her as their own. She was loved and known by very many, and, regardless of mission distinction, they went to her for

118 JIN KO-NIU
advice and help. All with one accord hold her in very high esteem. Although she was a very busy missionary, she always had time to give to every one of the very many who sought her counsel. Her sound judgment,

PHOTO: UP A RIVER NEAR AMOY.

Cheerfulness, optimistic view of things, keen sense of humour, courtesy, kindness and unusual intelligence, made friends for her everywhere. Her knowledge of and ability to speak the Chinese language were above the

LAST YEARS 119
average. These qualifications, added to the greatest of all—her whole-hearted trust in God and in His promises—made her a model missionary."
Another writes: "I am sending you my last circular letter, as I know you will be interested in the start of female education in this corner of our province. How genuinely pleased our dear friend Jin Ko-niu would have been in this development! Humble beginnings for her were always full of hope, for she seemed to see a beautiful (lower where others could only discern a tiny and, perhaps, unsightly bud. This I have experienced again and again in telling her of some of my experiences in the country and in hearing her tell of hers."
Another: "How the women and girls loved her! Long will she be spoken of with esteem and affection through the valleys and hills in the wide region about Amoy. And we, who had the privilege of coming in contact with her bright and attractive personality, were helped and cheered time and again."
Attacks of dengue fever and pleurisy broke into these days of work, and the unusual experience of being an invalid was felt. It was long before she yielded to the pains that seemed to grip her and were an indication of deep-scaled trouble; and when movement was

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torture, she still tried to overcome the growing stiffness with calisthenics exercises.
The day came when going about was no longer possible, and the doctor ordered her back to Europe, hoping that a winter on the Mediterranean would restore health. Another opinion was taken before leaving, and it was decided to return home direct.
So, lovingly and skillfully nursed by a fellow-missionary, Jessie arrived in England, and was taken to see a London specialist. His verdict was that nothing could be done. He was rather taken aback by her bright smile and cordial "Oh, thank you!"
It was on a brilliant day in March, 1904, that Jessie was brought to St. Leonard's on a stretcher, and laid in the sunny room where she was to spend so many weeks. She was so glad to be at home, and full of the pleasure of seeing father, mother, brothers, and sisters, and full, too, of the bright hope which had been given her by the doctors of a short, speedy journey to the better Home above.
In seeing friends, writing and receiving letters, planning presents, and reading books, the better days passed quickly. There were other days when there was much weariness and weakness, with fever and a longing to be able to move even a little in the bed ; and the journey that was to be only a few short months stretched into years instead, and the

LAST YEARS 121
gates of Heaven, so often nearly reached, seemed closed. They opened to others as she lay waiting, and she saw fellow-missionaries, Chinese friends, and even the father who had been chaplain as well, all enter first.
Yet it was wonderful how bright and merry she was. All family jokes were retailed in her room, and when three or four of the family all came up together, there was plenty of chaff and fun and laughter. Such expressions as "sick-room" and "sufferer" she repudiated, and much preferred the thought that she was a soldier called from the fighting-line to act as sentinel. "When you see me turn coward," she said, "remind me that I am a soldier." When one and another passed her and entered the "Pearly Gates," she said, "I seem to be shunted to a side-line when close to the terminus, to let the expresses go by." She sometimes said, "I am glad in God's will; I don't like the idea of just submitting."
At times when she had freer use of her arms she loved to work, and many little knitted and crocheted things were made for friends, both white and yellow. She had always been so busy and active that her happiest hours were when she was doing some useful work. She wrote some articles for the mission magazines, and once or twice for the Chinese paper in Amoy. One night

122 JIN KO-NIU
when she had not slept, she made a rhyme in Chinese on teaching. They seem to enjoy rhymed exhortations, and the old schoolgirls were pleased to get this message from one they loved so well.
Her thoughts were much out in Amoy, and she "rejoiced greatly" when she heard of her girls "walking in truth." The news of the Revival in the schools made her very glad, and she praised and prayed the more. We often saw her lying with her hands folded, and knew she was bringing definite cases to the Lord for help and healing.
It was again a sunny March day when, on Palm Sunday, the beautiful gates were suddenly Hung wide open, and Jessie was "at Home with the Lord."
She had felt latterly that the Heavenly Father's plan for her might be recovery and return to China, and she had been so glad about it. But on a day lately when pain and weakness had been much felt, she began to wonder if she were mistaken. We said we could not tell, and she only answered cheerily, "Well, either way is all right."

Click Here for Part One: The Call to China
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Henry and Sarah Beltman, Amoy Mission  1902-1928?Bruce, Elizabeth
William Burns, Scottish Missionary to China, visited Amoy Burns, Wm.
John Caldwell China Coast Family Caldwells
Henry and Kate Depree Amoy Mission  1907 to 1948DePree
Dr. John Otte and Hope Hospital Develder, Wally
   Dr. John Otte and Hope Hospital Wally's Memoirs!
Douglas CarstairsDouglas, Carstairs
Elihu Doty RCA Missionary to Amoy ChinaDoty, Elihu
Rev William Rankin Duryea, D.D. The Amoy Mission 1877Duryea, Wm. Rankin
Joseph and Marion Esther
Esther,Joe & Marion
Katherine Green Amoy Mission  1907 to 1950Green, Katherine
Karl Gutzlaff Missionary to ChinaGutzlaff, Karl
Stella Girard Veenschoten
Hills,Jack & Joann
. Stella Girard Veenschoten
Hill's Photos.80+
..Stella Girard VeenschotenKeith H.
Dr. John Otte and Hope Hospital Homeschool
Richard and Johanna Hofstra of the Amoy MIssion ChinaHofstras
Tena Holkeboer Amoy Mission, Hope HospitalHolkeboer, Tena
Dr. Clarence Holleman and his wife Ruth Eleanor Vanden Berg Holleman were RCA missionaries on AmoyHolleman, M.D.
Hope Hospital Amoy  on Gulangyu (Kulangsu, Koolongsoo, etc.)Hope Hospital
Stella Girard Veenschoten
Johnston Bio
Rev. and Mrs. Joralman of the Amoy MissionJoralmans
Wendell and Renske Karsen
Karsen, W&R
Edwin and Elizabeth Koeppe Family, Amoy Mission ChinaKoeppes, Edwin&Eliz.
Dr. Clarence Holleman and his wife Ruth Eleanor Vanden Berg Holleman were RCA missionaries on AmoyKip, Leonard W.
William Vander Meer  Talmage College Fukien Christian UniversityMeer Wm. Vander
Margaret Morrison, Amoy Mission  1892-1931Morrison, Margaret
John Muilenberg Amoy MissionMuilenbergs
Jean Neinhuis, Amoy Mission Hope Hospital Gulangyu or Ku-long-sooNeinhuis, Jean
Theodore Oltman M.D. Amoy Missionary DoctorOltman, M.D.
Reverend Alvin Ostrum, of the Amoy Mission, Fujian ChinaOstrum, Alvin
Dr. John Otte and Hope Hospital Otte,M.D.Stella Girard VeenschotenLast Days
Henry and Mary Voskuil Amoy MissionPlatz, Jessie
Reverend W. J. Pohlman, Amoy MIssion, Fujian ChinaPohlman, W. J.
Henry and Dorothy Poppen, RCA Missionaries to Amoy China Amoy Mission Project 1841-1951Poppen, H.& D.
Reverend Daniel Rapalje, Amoy Mission, Fujian ChinaRapalje, Daniel
Herman and Bessie Renskers Amoy Mission  1910-1933Renskers
Dr. John Otte and Hope Hospital Talmage, J.V.N.

Lyman and Rose Talman Amoy Mission  1916 to 1931Talman, Dr.
Stella Girard VeenschotenVeenschotens
. Nelson VeenschotenHenry V.Stella Girard VeenschotenStella V.
. Dr. John Otte and Hope Hospital Girard V.
Jeanette Veldman, Amoy Mission ChinaVeldman, J.
Henry and Mary Voskuil Amoy MissionVoskuil, H & M
Jean Walvoord Amoy Mission  1931-1951Walvoord
A. Livingston WarnshuisWarnshuis, A.L.
Nellie Zwemer Amoy Mission  1891-1930Zwemer, Nellie
"The MIssion Cemetery of Fuh-Chau" / Foochow by Rev.J.W. Wiley , M.D. (also mispelled Wylie )Fuh-chau Cemetery
Dr. John Otte and Hope Hospital City of Springs
   (Quanzhou, 1902!!)
Xiamen Churches Protestant Catholic Seventh Day Adventist Amoy Mission Missionaries Abeel
XM Churches
Xiamen Churches Protestant Catholic Seventh Day Adventist Amoy Mission Missionaries AbeelChurch History Xiamen International Christian Fellowship Expat Nondenominational interdenominational
Opium wars in Xiamen, Fujian China.  Opium Wars
Amoy Mission Bibliography A.M. Bibliography
Xiamen YMCA and YWCAYMCA Volunteer!
Xiamen International Christian FellowshipXICF FellowshipIslamic Muslim Mosques Ashab Quanzhou Damascus Fuzhou Xiamen
Xiamen and Fujian Buddhist Taoist Confucian Temples Mazu Manichean Hindu IslamicTemplesXiamen and Fujian Temples and Mosques  Buddhism Confucian Taoism Taoist Buddhism Mazu Matsu Meizhou IslandXiamen and Fujian  Mosques Islamic Muslim Ashab Mosque Quanzhou Fuzhou  Mohammed Disciples DamascusMosques
Xiamen and Fujian Buddhist Taoist Confucian Temples Mazu Manichean Hindu IslamicChrist in Chinese 
       Artists' Eyes


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EDUCATION
Xiamen University GuideXiamen University
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Study Mandarin Chinese or Minnan Dialect at Xiamen University  or with private tutorStudy Mandarin
 
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DINING  Xiamen Tea Houses Minnan tea culture minnan tea ceremonyTea Houses
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RECREATION
Hakka Earthen architecture Massage!
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Sports -- Golf, Badminton Tennis Bowling Paint BallSports Xiamen Boardwalk One of the most beautiful boardwalks in China or anywhere else.  Along the Island Ring road over 6km long so far.Boardwalk
Xiamen Parks, recreation, hiking boardwalk etcParks Xiamen Museum Library Science Center etcPets
Bird watching in Xiamen Amoy  SwinhoeBirdwatching
Martial arts Chinese Kung FuKung Fu Hiking around Xiamen BushwalksHiking
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Chinese festivals and culture minnanFestival&Culture
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BUSINESS
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Work or teach in Xiamen, Quanzhou or other Fujian schools and universities  English French RussianJobs!(teach/work)
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CIFIT (Trade Fair)
Common Talk Xiamen Dailys Weekly English SupplementMTS(Translation)

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